Skip to content
Back Catalog Albums: 

Released September 20, 1975, "Masque" is the third studio album by the American rock band Kansas. Kansas is known for their unique blend of progressive rock, art rock, and hard rock elements.

I first became aware of this album, and of Kansas itself, when a fraternity brother from another chapter named Joe transferred to my school and moved into the frat house that year, bringing his collection of albums with him. Kansas' breakout album "Leftoverture" was still a year away, but "Masque" was my preview of coming attractions.

The unusual album cover art reproduces "Water", a painting by Italian artist Giuseppe Arcimboldo, in which an assemblage of various aquatic creatures are combined to form a human-like face in profile.

While "Masque" may not be as well-known as some of Kansas's later albums, it contributed to the band's growing reputation in the progressive rock scene during the 1970s. The album demonstrated their musical versatility and laid the foundation for their future successes, including the breakthrough album "Leftoverture" released in 1976.

"Masque" features a mix of shorter, more straightforward songs alongside longer, more complex compositions. Some notable tracks from the album include "It Takes a Woman's Love (To Make a Man)," "All the World," "Icarus - Borne on Wings of Steel" and "The Pinnacle." The latter is a multi-part epic that showcases the band's progressive and symphonic influences.

"Masque" was recorded primarily at Studio in the Country in Bogalusa, Louisiana. The album was produced by the band in collaboration with Jeff Glixman. The recording sessions took place in 1975.

The band members involved in the recording of "Masque" were Steve Walsh - keyboards, vocals; Robby Steinhardt - violin, vocals; Kerry Livgren - guitar, keyboards; Rich Williams - guitar; Dave Hope - bass; Phil Ehart - drums, percussion.

"Masque" marked a point in Kansas's discography where they were refining their sound, incorporating a mix of progressive and symphonic elements. The use of violin, keyboards, and intricate arrangements became trademarks of Kansas's sound during this period.

Track by track:

  1. It Takes a Woman's Love (To Make a Man): This track opens the album with a more straightforward rock sound compared to some of Kansas's later works. It features catchy melodies, driven by Steve Walsh's distinctive vocals. The song showcases the band's ability to blend rock elements with a progressive edge.
  2. Two Cents Worth: This track continues the album with a dynamic blend of rock and progressive elements. It features intricate instrumental sections, showcasing the band's musical prowess. The interplay between guitar, keyboards, and violin is a notable aspect of this composition.
  3. Icarus - Borne on Wings of Steel: One of the highlights of the album, "Icarus" is a multi-part epic that demonstrates Kansas's progressive rock tendencies. The song features shifting dynamics, intricate arrangements, and showcases each band member's musical skills. The title refers to the Greek myth of Icarus, and the music effectively captures the sense of soaring and falling.
  4. All the World: This song brings a more melodic and accessible side to the album. It has a catchy chorus and features the band's trademark use of violin and keyboards. The song's lyrics touch on themes of love and unity.
  5. Child of Innocence: This track features a twin-lead harmony guitar intro and explores the theme of innocence. As the song progresses, it builds in intensity, incorporating the band's progressive tendencies. Robby Steinhardt's violin work is particularly noteworthy.
  6. It's You: "It's You" is a relatively short and straightforward love song, featuring softer acoustic elements. It provides a moment of respite in the album's overall dynamic range.
  7. Mysteries and Mayhem: This track showcases the band's instrumental prowess. It features shifting time signatures and intricate interplay between guitar, keyboards, and violin, creating a sense of mystery and intrigue.
  8. The Pinnacle: Closing the album, "The Pinnacle" is another multi-part epic. Clocking in at over nine minutes, it explores various musical themes and emotions. The song's structure and complexity contribute to the album's progressive rock identity.

"Masque" as a whole is a diverse album that showcases Kansas's ability to seamlessly blend rock, progressive, and symphonic elements. The combination of strong vocals, intricate instrumentals, and thought-provoking lyrics solidified the band's place in the progressive rock genre during the 1970s.

Kansas genealogy and discography
Explore Kansas music on Amazon...
Classic Rock History: Tools Of The Trade: 

The Gibson Flying V is a distinctive electric guitar known for its V-shaped body design. The design was the brainchild of then-Gibson president Ted McCarty, in an effort to update, modernize and generate interest in Gibson electric guitars in the late 1950s. Here's a brief history of the Gibson Flying V:

  1. Introduction in the 1950s:
    • The Gibson Flying V was introduced in 1958 as part of Gibson's Modernistic series, along with the Explorer and the Moderne.
    • The design was unconventional and futuristic for its time, featuring a V-shaped body with sharp angles and a pointed headstock.
    • Popular in automotive design at the time were pointed tailfins, which the guitar shape echoed.
  2. Initial Reception:
    • The initial reaction to the Flying V was mixed. Some players found the design too radical, while others appreciated its unique and edgy look.
    • The shape made playing in a sitting position difficult; a rubberized strip added on the edge of the lower bout aimed with limited success to solve it. Most players opted to rest the crotch of the V over the thigh when seated.
    • Despite its innovative design, the Flying V initially struggled to gain popularity, and, after production of just under 100 units, was discontinued in 1959.
  3. Resurgence in the 1960s:
    • In the late 1960s, the Flying V gained popularity among rock and blues players, and its distinctive shape became associated with the emerging hard rock and heavy metal genres.
    • Guitarists such as Albert King and Lonnie Mack were among the early adopters of the Flying V, contributing to its growing reputation.
  4. Reissue and Reintroduction:
    • Due to increasing demand, Gibson reintroduced the Flying V in the mid-1960s. However, production numbers were still relatively low compared to other Gibson models.
    • In the 1970s, Gibson began reissuing the Flying V with slight modifications, and it started gaining more recognition.
  5. Popularity in the 1980s and Beyond:
    • The 1980s saw a surge in popularity for the Flying V, especially among heavy metal guitarists. Iconic players like Dave Mustaine of Megadeth and Kirk Hammett of Metallica contributed to the guitar's popularity in the metal scene.
    • Gibson produced various versions and signature models of the Flying V over the years, catering to different player preferences.
  6. Continued Legacy:
    • The Flying V has continued to be a popular choice among guitarists across various genres, including hard rock, metal, blues, and even jazz.
    • Gibson regularly releases new variations and limited-edition models of the Flying V to cater to the diverse tastes of modern players.

Here is a list of some prominent guitarists associated with the Flying V:

  1. Albert King: Often credited as one of the earliest adopters of the Flying V, Albert King was a blues guitarist who played a significant role in popularizing the guitar in the 1960s.
  2. Lonnie Mack: Another blues and rock guitarist, Lonnie Mack, played a pivotal role in the early popularity of the Flying V. His influential instrumental track "Memphis" showcased the guitar's capabilities.
  3. Dave Davies (The Kinks): Dave Davies, lead guitarist of the British rock band The Kinks, was known for his use of the Flying V. The distorted and raw sound of his guitar playing played a crucial role in shaping the band's early sound.
  4. Michael Schenker (UFO, Scorpions): German guitarist Michael Schenker gained fame for his work with UFO and the Scorpions. He often played a white Flying V, and his melodic yet powerful guitar work left a lasting impact on the hard rock and metal genres.
  5. Jimi Hendrix: While Jimi Hendrix is more commonly associated with his iconic Fender Stratocaster, he occasionally played a Flying V. His experimental and groundbreaking approach to the guitar transcended traditional boundaries.
  6. Andy Powell (Wishbone Ash): A founding member of the group widely acknowledged as the standard bearer of the "twin lead guitar" band configuration; seeing Powell without a Flying V would be like seeing Slash without his signature top hat.
  7. Rudolf Schenker (Scorpions): The rhythm guitarist and founding member of the Scorpions, Rudolf Schenker, is known for his extensive use of the Flying V, contributing to the band's signature sound.
  8. Kirk Hammett (Metallica): Kirk Hammett, lead guitarist for Metallica, has been associated with the Flying V throughout his career. His use of the guitar is particularly notable in the earlier years of Metallica's discography.
  9. Dave Mustaine (Megadeth): As the founder and lead guitarist of Megadeth, Dave Mustaine has often played various versions of the Flying V. The guitar has become synonymous with his aggressive and technical playing style.
  10. Zakk Wylde (Black Label Society, Ozzy Osbourne): Zakk Wylde is a highly influential guitarist known for his work with Ozzy Osbourne and as the frontman of Black Label Society. His use of the Flying V is prominent in his heavy, hard-hitting playing style.
  11. Joe Bonamassa: The blues guitarist, known for his vast collection of vintage electric guitars and amplifiers, has acquired several 1950s era Flying Vs and plays them regularly in live concerts.

These guitarists, among many others, have contributed to the Flying V's reputation as an instrument capable of producing a wide range of sounds across diverse musical genres.

The Gibson Flying V has become an iconic and enduring symbol in the world of electric guitars, appreciated for both its distinctive design and its contribution to the sound of numerous influential musicians.

Guitar Heroes: 

Steve Vai is an American guitarist, composer, and producer who is widely regarded as one of the greatest and most influential guitarists of all time. He was born on June 6, 1960, in Carle Place, New York. Vai's musical journey began at a young age when he started playing the guitar at the age of 13. He quickly displayed exceptional talent and became dedicated to mastering the instrument.

In his early career, Steve Vai studied guitar with fellow New Yorker Joe Satriani, and later at the Berklee College of Music in Boston, Massachusetts. Afterward, he started working as a transcriptionist and a music transcriber for Frank Zappa. Vai's virtuosic playing and his ability to execute Zappa's complex compositions led to his recognition as a remarkable guitarist.

Vai's breakthrough came in 1980 when he joined Frank Zappa's band as a full-time member. During his tenure with Zappa, he contributed to albums such as "You Are What You Is" and "Ship Arriving Too Late to Save a Drowning Witch." Vai's incredible guitar solos and his use of techniques like tapping and whammy bar dives became his signature style.

In 1984, Vai left Zappa's band to pursue a solo career. He released his debut solo album, "Flex-Able," which showcased his diverse guitar skills and unique musical vision. However, it was his second solo album, "Passion and Warfare" (1990), that solidified his position as a guitar virtuoso. The album received critical acclaim and is considered a masterpiece of instrumental rock.

Throughout his career, Steve Vai has released numerous solo albums, each showcasing his technical proficiency and creativity. Some notable albums include "Fire Garden" (1996), "Real Illusions: Reflections" (2005), and "The Story of Light" (2012). His albums often feature a mix of instrumental tracks and vocal-oriented songs.

Vai's playing style is characterized by his exceptional technical abilities, innovative guitar techniques, and his ability to blend genres such as rock, jazz, and classical music. He is known for his lightning-fast alternate picking, extensive use of legato and sweep picking, complex chord progressions, and his mastery of the whammy bar.

Apart from his solo career, Steve Vai has collaborated with numerous renowned musicians, including David Lee Roth, Whitesnake, and Joe Satriani. He has also contributed to soundtracks for movies such as "Crossroads" (1986) and "Bill & Ted's Bogus Journey" (1991).

In addition to his guitar playing, Vai is also a skilled composer and has written orchestral compositions. He released an album titled "Sound Theories Vol. I & II" in 2007, which featured his compositions performed by the Netherlands Metropole Orchestra.

Steve Vai's influence on the guitar community is immense. He has inspired countless guitarists with his technical prowess, innovative playing style, and unique approach to music. He has won numerous awards, including three Grammy Awards for his work as a guitarist, composer, and producer.

In summary, Steve Vai is a highly accomplished and influential guitarist who has made significant contributions to the world of instrumental rock music. His virtuosic playing, innovative techniques, and creative compositions have solidified his place as one of the most respected guitarists in the history of rock music.

Classic Rock History: 

The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame is a museum and hall of fame located in Cleveland, Ohio, United States, dedicated to preserving the history and celebrating the achievements of rock and roll music.

Here's an overview of its creation and history:

Creation: The idea for the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame was initiated by Ahmet Ertegun, the founder of Atlantic Records, in 1983. He envisioned a place that would recognize and honor the pioneers and contributors to the genre of rock and roll. Ertegun, along with other key figures in the music industry, formed the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Foundation to oversee the project.

Foundation and First Ceremony: The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Foundation was established in 1983, and the first induction ceremony took place in 1986. The initial inductees included notable artists like Elvis Presley, Chuck Berry, Little Richard, James Brown, Ray Charles, Fats Domino, and Buddy Holly.

Location: After considering various cities, Cleveland, Ohio, was chosen as the home for the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. The decision was partly influenced by Cleveland's rich musical history and the city's commitment to providing financial support for the construction of the museum.

Architectural Design: The iconic building that houses the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame was designed by architect I. M. Pei and opened its doors to the public on September 2, 1995. The unique design of the building, with its striking glass pyramid, has become a symbol of the museum.

Induction Process: In order to be inducted, the first record by the musician or band has to be out for at least 25 years. The induction process involves the nomination and selection of artists, musicians, producers, and other significant contributors to rock and roll. Inductees are chosen by a voting body of approximately 1,000 artists, historians, and music industry professionals. The induction ceremony is held annually and features performances by inductees and other artists paying tribute to their influence.

The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame has a set of criteria and a specific process for selecting inductees. The criteria are broad and intended to encompass various aspects of an artist's or band's impact on the genre.

  1. Musical Excellence:
    • This is the primary criterion. Inductees are evaluated based on the influence and significance of their contributions to the development and perpetuation of rock and roll music. The quality and impact of an artist's or band's body of work are central considerations.
  2. Innovation and Influence:
    • The degree to which an artist or band has been innovative in their approach to music and how influential they have been on other artists is considered. This includes pushing boundaries, experimenting with new sounds, and influencing the direction of the genre.
  3. Longevity:
    • The longevity of an artist's career is taken into account. This criterion recognizes sustained contributions to the world of rock and roll over an extended period.
  4. Icon Status:
    • The artist or band should have attained iconic status and made a lasting impact on popular culture beyond just the music. This could include influence on fashion, attitudes, and other aspects of society.
  5. Recognition and Awards:
    • Awards and recognition, both within the music industry and in popular culture, contribute to an artist's candidacy. This may include Grammy Awards, chart-topping hits, and other forms of acknowledgment.
  6. Body of Work:
    • The overall body of work is evaluated, taking into consideration albums, singles, and other significant contributions to the rock and roll canon.
  7. Adaptability:
    • The ability of an artist or band to adapt to changing musical landscapes and remain relevant over time is considered.
  8. Performances:
    • The quality and impact of live performances, including concerts and tours, are taken into account. A compelling stage presence and the ability to connect with audiences can be factors.

It's important to note that the selection process involves two rounds of voting. First, a nominating committee composed of musicians, historians, and industry professionals creates a ballot of nominees. This ballot is then sent to an international voting body of over 1,000 artists, historians, and music industry professionals, who cast their votes to determine the final inductees.

Expansions and Programs: Over the years, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame has expanded its exhibits, educational programs, and outreach efforts. It includes a vast collection of memorabilia, instruments, and multimedia displays that showcase the evolution of rock and roll.

Controversies: Like any hall of fame, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame has faced controversies over its selection process and omissions. Some critics argue that certain influential artists have been overlooked, leading to debates and criticisms arising from various quarters. Some of the notable controversies include:

  1. Omissions and Snubs:
    • One of the most common criticisms is the omission of certain influential artists from the list of inductees. Fans and critics often express disappointment when iconic and influential musicians are not recognized. This has led to debates about the Hall's selection process and the criteria used to determine inductees. More below.
  2. Genre Boundaries:
    • The definition of "rock and roll" itself has been a source of contention. Some argue that the Hall should be more inclusive of genres that have been influenced by or have influenced rock music, such as hip-hop and electronic music. This debate raises questions about whether the Hall adequately represents the diverse landscape of popular music.
  3. Commercial Success vs. Artistic Merit:
    • There's an ongoing debate about whether commercial success should be a primary factor in the selection process. Critics argue that some artists with significant commercial success but less critical acclaim have been prioritized over others with a more profound artistic impact.
  4. Politics and Personal Relationships:
    • The process of selecting inductees involves voting by a committee, and like any voting system, it is susceptible to politics and personal relationships. Allegations of favoritism, lobbying, and conflicts of interest have been raised over the years, although the specifics of the voting process are generally kept confidential.
  5. Timing of Inductions:
    • The timing of an artist's induction can also be a point of contention. Some argue that certain artists are inducted too early in their careers, while others believe that some deserving artists are recognized only after a prolonged period.
  6. Exclusion of Specific Genres or Artists:
    • Critics have pointed out the omission of certain sub-genres or artists who may not fit a traditional rock mold but have had a profound impact on music. This has led to discussions about whether the Hall should broaden its scope to include a more diverse range of musical styles.
  7. Lack of Diversity:
    • The Hall has faced criticism for the lack of diversity among its inductees, particularly in its early years. There have been calls for greater representation of women, artists of color, and those from non-Western regions.
  8. Fan Voting Impact:
    • In recent years, the Hall introduced a fan voting component where the public can vote for their favorite nominees. While this was an attempt to involve the audience, it has also sparked debates about the influence of fan popularity versus the judgment of industry professionals in the induction process.

Snubs: Here are some artists often mentioned in discussions about Rock and Roll Hall of Fame snubs:

  1. Rush: Canadian rock band known for their progressive rock sound. First eligible in 1998, they were inducted in 2013 after years of being overlooked.
  2. Kiss: Kiss has earned 30 Gold albums, and 14 Platinum albums. First eligible in 1999, the four original members of Kiss were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2014.
  3. Deep Purple: A pioneering hard rock and heavy metal band with hits like "Smoke on the Water." First eligible in 1993, they were eventually inducted in 2016.
  4. Journey: A classic rock band with numerous hit songs, including "Don't Stop Believin'." First eligible in 2000, Journey was inducted in 2017.
  5. Yes: A progressive rock band with a significant impact on the genre. First eligible in 1995, they were inducted in 2017.
  6. The Cars: New Wave and rock band known for hits like "Just What I Needed" and "Drive." First eligible in 2004, they were inducted in 2018.
  7. Soundgarden: A prominent grunge band from the Seattle scene. Chris Cornell, Soundgarden's lead singer, was posthumously inducted as a solo artist in 2020.
  8. The Smiths: An influential alternative rock band known for their unique sound and Morrissey's distinctive vocals. First eligible in 2009.
  9. Kate Bush: An English singer-songwriter known for her eclectic musical style. She has had a significant impact on the music industry. First eligible in 2004, she was finally inducted in 2023, but did not attend the ceremony.
  10. Motorhead: A legendary heavy metal band led by the iconic Lemmy Kilmister. First eligible in 2002, they were first nominated in 2020.
  11. Nine Inch Nails: Industrial rock band led by Trent Reznor, known for pushing musical boundaries. First eligible in 2014, they were inducted in 2020.
  12. Joy Division: A pioneering post-punk band that had a profound influence on alternative and indie music. First eligible in 2004.
  13. Iron Maiden: A British heavy metal band known for their energetic performances and iconic mascot, Eddie. First eligible in 2004.

Despite controversies, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame remains a significant institution in the world of music, recognizing and preserving the legacy of those who have made lasting contributions to the genre of rock and roll.

Classic Rock History: 

The development of the cassette tape format is a fascinating journey that transformed the landscape of audio recording and playback. Here's an overview of the key milestones in the development of the cassette tape format:

Predecessors: Before the cassette tape, there were various attempts to create portable audio formats. The most notable was the compact cassette's predecessor, the Phillips EL 3585, introduced in 1962. It was a small reel-to-reel tape system designed for dictation but lacked widespread consumer adoption.

Introduction of Compact Cassette: The compact cassette, as we know it today, was introduced by the Dutch company Philips at the Berlin Radio Show in 1963. The compact cassette was initially designed for use in dictation machines and was not immediately embraced for music playback.

Collaboration with Grundig: Philips collaborated with the German company Grundig to further develop the compact cassette for music playback. Grundig introduced the first cassette player designed for music in 1966. This collaboration led to the standardization of cassette dimensions and tape speed.

Improvements and Standardization: In 1965, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) established a standard for the compact cassette, specifying tape width, speed (1 7/8 inches per second or 4.76 cm/s), and dimensions. This standardization allowed for compatibility between different manufacturers' equipment.

Stereo Playback: Early compact cassettes were monaural, but stereo playback was introduced in 1968. This enhancement significantly contributed to the cassette's popularity as a music playback medium.

Convenience and Portability: The compact cassette gained popularity due to its compact size, portability, and ease of use. Unlike other formats like vinyl records or 8-track tapes, cassettes were smaller, lightweight, and rewound automatically.

Sony's Role: While Philips played a crucial role in the development of the cassette format, Sony also contributed significantly. In 1979, Sony introduced the Walkman, a portable cassette player that revolutionized the way people listened to music, making cassettes even more popular.

Recording Capability: Cassettes allowed users to record their own content, contributing to the rise of mixtapes and personal music collections. The use of Dolby noise reduction and the introduction of high-bias and metal-formulation tapes improved audio fidelity for both pre-recorded and recorded content.

Competition and Decline: The cassette format faced competition from other emerging technologies, such as the compact disc (CD) in the 1980s. While CDs offered superior sound quality, cassettes remained popular due to their affordability and recordability. However, by the late 1990s, digital formats began to dominate, and cassette sales declined.

Legacy and Nostalgia: Despite its decline in commercial use, the cassette tape format has experienced a resurgence in recent years among enthusiasts and collectors who appreciate the nostalgia associated with physical media. Some independent musicians also release music on cassette tapes for their unique charm.

The compact cassette played a crucial role in democratizing music consumption, offering a convenient and affordable way for people to enjoy music both at home and on the go. Its legacy is evident in the nostalgia surrounding cassette culture and the continued interest in vintage audio technologies.

Classic Rock History: 

The 45 revolutions per minute (RPM) record, also known as the "single" or "single record," was developed as a format for shorter musical recordings, typically featuring one song on each side. Here's more information about the development of the 45 RPM record:

Introduction by RCA Victor: The 45 RPM record was introduced by RCA Victor in March 1949 as a response to the 33⅓ RPM long-playing (LP) record introduced by Columbia Records the previous year. RCA Victor aimed to create a format that was more suitable for shorter musical recordings, particularly popular songs.

Technical Specifications: The 45 RPM record featured a seven-inch diameter, smaller than the 12-inch LP record. It was designed to accommodate a single track on each side, typically with a playing time of around 3 to 5 minutes per side. The grooves on the 45 RPM record were wider than those on the LP, allowing for louder playback.

Adoption by the Music Industry: The 45 RPM record format quickly gained popularity, especially in the realm of popular music. Record labels began releasing singles on 45 RPM records, allowing artists to focus on promoting individual hit songs rather than full-length albums.

Jukebox Compatibility: One of the key advantages of the 45 RPM format was its compatibility with jukeboxes, which were popular in bars, diners, and other public spaces. Jukeboxes were often loaded with 45s, allowing patrons to select and play their favorite songs.

Competing Formats: While the 45 RPM record became the standard for singles, it faced competition from other formats, including the 78 RPM record (which was still in use for a transitional period) and the 33⅓ RPM LP record for longer-playing albums.

Color-Coded Labels: To distinguish between the different RPM formats and make it easier for consumers to identify records, record labels adopted color-coding and graphics for their labels. For instance, RCA Victor used a distinctive black label for 45 RPM records.

Impact on the Music Industry: The introduction of the 45 RPM record had a significant impact on the music industry. It allowed artists to release individual tracks more easily, and the format became synonymous with the rise of rock and roll in the 1950s. The convenience of the 45 RPM single contributed to the popularity of purchasing individual songs rather than complete albums.

Enduring Legacy: While technological advancements have since shifted the music industry toward digital formats, the 45 RPM record remains an iconic and collectible format. Vinyl enthusiasts and collectors continue to appreciate the unique charm of 45 RPM records, and many classic and contemporary artists release special editions or limited singles in this format.

Overall, the 45 RPM record played a crucial role in shaping the landscape of the music industry and remains a symbol of the single-track era.

Classic Rock History: 

The history of blues music in the United States is deeply rooted in the African American experience, and its evolution over the years has had a profound impact on the broader musical landscape. Blues originated in the late 19th century, with its roots in African musical traditions, spirituals, work songs, and field hollers. It grew and developed in the rural areas of the Southern United States, particularly in Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, and other states with large African American populations.

Early Blues

Delta Blues: Often considered the earliest form of blues, Delta blues emerged in the Mississippi Delta region. Artists like Robert Johnson, Son House, and Charley Patton played a crucial role in shaping this style, characterized by its raw sound, slide guitar techniques, and emotional expression.

Urban Blues: As African Americans moved to urban areas during the Great Migration, blues evolved, adapting to the faster pace of city life. Chicago became a major hub for urban blues, with artists like Muddy Waters and Howlin' Wolf contributing to the electrification of the genre.

Classic Blues Era (1920s-1930s)

During the 1920s and 1930s, the classic blues era saw the rise of female blues singers like Bessie Smith and Ma Rainey. These artists often performed with jazz-influenced bands and laid the groundwork for future developments in blues and popular music.

Electric Blues and R&B (1940s-1950s)

The post-World War II era saw the advent of electric blues, where artists started using amplified instruments. Innovators like Muddy Waters and Howlin' Wolf played a crucial role in this transition. This period also laid the foundation for rhythm and blues (R&B), a genre that incorporated elements of blues, jazz, and gospel.

British Invasion (1960s)

The so-called British Invasion of the 1960s had a significant impact on the popularity of blues music. British rock bands, particularly The Rolling Stones, The Yardbirds, and The Animals, were heavily influenced by American blues. These British bands reintroduced blues music to American audiences, often covering songs by blues legends and bringing attention to the original artists.

The Rolling Stones, in particular, played a crucial role in popularizing blues among a younger audience. Their early albums, such as "The Rolling Stones" (1964) and "The Rolling Stones No. 2" (1965), featured blues covers and helped bring attention to the works of blues musicians like Howlin' Wolf and Willie Dixon.

Eric Clapton, another influential figure of the British blues scene, played a significant role in popularizing the blues guitar style. His work with bands like The Yardbirds, John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers, and Cream showcased his deep appreciation for blues music.

The British Invasion not only introduced American audiences to blues but also helped renew interest in the genre among a younger generation. It played a crucial role in the development of blues-based rock, which became a dominant force in the late 1960s and beyond. The fusion of blues with rock elements laid the groundwork for the emergence of various sub-genres, including blues rock and hard rock.

Classic Rock History: 

The development of the 33⅓ revolutions per minute (RPM) long-playing (LP) record by Peter Carl Goldmark was a significant milestone in the history of audio recording. The LP record revolutionized the way music was distributed, providing longer playing times and improved sound quality compared to the existing 78 RPM records.

Here are some key points about the development and impact of the 33⅓ RPM LP record:

Motivation for Development: In the late 1940s, the standard format for recorded music was the 78 RPM record, which typically could only hold about three to five minutes of music per side. Goldmark recognized the limitations of this format and sought to create a record that could accommodate longer musical performances, such as full symphonies or extended jazz sessions.

Invention and Demonstration: Goldmark and his team at CBS Laboratories developed the 33⅓ RPM LP record as a microgroove format. On June 18, 1948, Columbia Records introduced the LP format to the public with the release of the first twelve-inch LP, featuring the recording of Mendelssohn's "Concerto in E Minor for Violin and Orchestra" by Nathan Milstein and the New York Philharmonic Orchestra.

Technical Specifications: The LP record had finer grooves than the 78 RPM records, allowing for more detailed and extended recordings. The 33⅓ RPM speed also contributed to increased playing time. The standard LP record had a diameter of 12 inches, and its microgroove design allowed for up to 22 minutes of music per side.

Acceptance and Adoption: The LP format quickly gained acceptance in the music industry due to its technical advantages. Musicians, particularly classical artists and jazz performers, embraced the longer playing times, enabling them to release complete works or extended performances on a single disc.

Competing Formats: While the LP format was successful, it faced competition from other formats such as the 45 RPM single introduced by RCA Victor. The 45 RPM record was smaller and designed for shorter recordings, often single tracks or popular songs. Over time, the LP format became more associated with albums and complete musical works.

Industry Standardization: The success of the LP format led to its widespread adoption as the industry standard for long-playing records. By the mid-1950s, most record labels had transitioned from 78 RPM to the LP format.

Impact on the Music Industry: The introduction of the 33⅓ RPM LP record had a profound impact on the music industry. It changed the way artists conceived and produced albums, allowing for more creative freedom and the exploration of conceptual and thematic ideas in musical releases.

The LP record became the dominant format for recorded music for several decades until the advent of digital formats like CDs in the 1980s. Despite changes in technology, the LP format has experienced a resurgence in popularity among audiophiles and collectors in recent years.

Classic Rock History: 

In addition to vinyl records, a significant amount of classic rock music, in its heyday, was consumed on 8-track tapes.

The 8-track tape player, also known simply as the 8-track player, was a popular audio playback technology that gained prominence in the mid-1960s and remained popular throughout the 1970s. It was a significant development in the history of portable and in-car audio entertainment. Here's a brief overview of its history:

Invention and Development:
The 8-track tape format was developed by Bill Lear, the inventor of the Learjet and founder of Lear Incorporated. Lear, along with his team, sought to create a reliable and convenient way for people to enjoy music in their cars. The 8-track cartridge was their solution.

Introduction:
The first commercially available 8-track tape player was launched by Lear in 1965 under the name "Stereo 8." This new format was designed to provide continuous playback of music without the need to flip or rewind the tape, making it particularly well-suited for in-car entertainment.

How It Worked:

The design removed the need to wind and rewind the tape between a supply reel and a take-up reel by creating an endless loop. The coil of tape was spooled somewhat loosely around a hub on a rotating disk platform. The tape threaded from the center of the coil, out to a series of openings in the leading edge of the cartridge, then back to the outside of the coil.

A graphite coating on the back of the tape served as a dry lubricant to keep the tape and mechanism flowing smoothly. This would also necessitate the need for frequent cleaning of the tape head and drive mechanism. Q-tips and isopropyl alcohol, or commercially available head cleaning cartridges were typically used to remove the graphite build-up from the playback head.

The openings on the leading edge of the cartridge accommodated contact with a track change sensor, the playback head, and the capstan roller to drive the tape.

The term "8-track" is derived from the fact that on the 1/4" wide tape, there are four pairs of left-right stereo channels, arranged (from top to bottom) L1/L2/L3/L4/R1/R2/R3/R4. This arrangement quadrupled the amount of playback time over two stereo track tapes of the same width, but at the expense of frequency response.

The ends of the tape loop were joined by a short strip of metallic adhesive tape. When this strip passed across the track change sensor, the mechanism would physically move the playback head down to read the next pair of stereo tracks. Since the mechanism and tapes could not be engineered with enough precision to match the head to the tape in every instance, an adjustment control allowed for the fine tuning of the head-to-tape contact in order to prevent "crosstalk" from one pair of tracks to the others.

A rubberized pinch roller was integrated into every tape cartridge, negating the need for it to be a part of the player mechanism, and more importantly providing the ability for the cartridge to be inserted and removed without any interaction with the player.

Car Audio Dominance:
Ford Motor Company became the first American car manufacturer to offer an 8-track tape player as an option on its 1966 Mustang, Thunderbird and Lincoln models. In conjunction, RCA Victor issued 175 Stereo-8 cartridges from their catalog of artists on its RCA Victor and RCA Camden record labels. By the 1967 model year, all Ford vehicles offered the 8-track tape player as an option.

Home 8-track players were not yet widely available, and until the format reached a level of market saturation to be offered in music stores, consumers had to visit a Ford dealership to purchase the new tapes.

Nevertheless, the 8-track player quickly gained popularity, becoming a standard feature in many automobiles during the late 1960s and throughout the 1970s. It was a significant improvement over the earlier in-car record players, which were prone to skipping and damage.

Music Industry Adoption:
Major record labels embraced the 8-track format, releasing a wide range of albums on 8-track tapes. This helped boost the format's popularity, as consumers could now enjoy their favorite music on the go.

Home Audio:
In addition to car audio, 8-track players were also available for home use. They were often integrated into home phono/AM/FM stereo systems and were commonly found in living rooms across the United States during the 1970s. Home 8-track recorders would also become available, although not as popular as playback-only units.

Limitations:
Despite its popularity, the 8-track format had some limitations. The most notable was the need to split albums into four programs, which often resulted in awkward breaks between tracks. Additionally, the tape itself was prone to wear and tear, which could lead to audio quality degradation over time.

The endless loop configuration also meant the tape could not be rewound to an earlier point in a program, only played or fast-forwarded.

Decline:
By the late 1970s, newer audio formats, such as the compact cassette and eventually the Sony Walkman, began to eclipse the 8-track tape player. These formats offered better sound quality, portability, and more convenient features. As a result, 8-track sales started to decline.

Obsolescence:
By the early 1980s, the production and availability of 8-track tapes and players had significantly decreased, and the format was largely phased out. Collectors and enthusiasts still appreciate 8-track players and tapes as nostalgic artifacts of the era.

Legacy:
While the 8-track format is mostly a relic of the past, it played a crucial role in the evolution of portable and in-car audio technology. It also left a lasting mark on popular culture, with references to 8-tracks often appearing in music, films, and television shows as symbols of the 1970s.

Today, 8-track tapes and players are collectors' items, and some people still enjoy the nostalgic experience of listening to music on this vintage format. However, for mainstream audio playback, the 8-track has been replaced by more advanced and convenient technologies.

Classic Rock History: In The News: 

MTV, "Music Television" debuted August 1, 1981. Instead of Disc Jockeys (DJs), there were "VJs" (Video Jockeys), including Martha Quinn, Alan Hunter, Nina Blackwood, JJ Jackson and Mark Goodman, all of whom hosted segments and introduced video clips.

The first ten videos to play on that day were:

1. "Video Killed the Radio Star" The Buggles
2. "You Better Run" Pat Benatar
3. "She Won't Dance With Me" Rod Stewart
4. "You Better You Bet" The Who
5. "Little Suzi's on the Up" Ph.D.
6. "We Don't Talk Anymore" Cliff Richard
7. "Brass in Pocket" The Pretenders
8. "Time Heals" Todd Rundgren
9. "Take It on the Run" REO Speedwagon
10. "Rockin' the Paradise" Styx

Of the 209 videos aired during the first 24 hours, many were run more than once. "You Better You Bet" by The Who, also the first video to be rerun, and "Just Between You And Me" by April Wine tied for the most airings at five apiece. Video number 100 was "Let's Go" by The Cars, which aired only once. "Lonely Boy" by Andrew Gold, also a one-timer, closed out the day.

Other notable first-day landmarks:

9. The REO Speedwagon video was the first live concert video to be aired on MTV, from their Live Infidelity home video release.

16. "Iron Maiden" by Iron Maiden was the first Heavy Metal song to be played on MTV.

41. "Angel of the Morning" by Juice Newton was the first country video to air.

62. "Rat Race" by The Specials was the first video featuring both black and white artists to air on MTV.