The development of the 33⅓ revolutions per minute (RPM) long-playing (LP) record by Peter Carl Goldmark was a significant milestone in the history of audio recording. The LP record revolutionized the way music was distributed, providing longer playing times and improved sound quality compared to the existing 78 RPM records.
Here are some key points about the development and impact of the 33⅓ RPM LP record:
Motivation for Development: In the late 1940s, the standard format for recorded music was the 78 RPM record, which typically could only hold about three to five minutes of music per side. Goldmark recognized the limitations of this format and sought to create a record that could accommodate longer musical performances, such as full symphonies or extended jazz sessions.
Invention and Demonstration: Goldmark and his team at CBS Laboratories developed the 33⅓ RPM LP record as a microgroove format. On June 18, 1948, Columbia Records introduced the LP format to the public with the release of the first twelve-inch LP, featuring the recording of Mendelssohn's "Concerto in E Minor for Violin and Orchestra" by Nathan Milstein and the New York Philharmonic Orchestra.
Technical Specifications: The LP record had finer grooves than the 78 RPM records, allowing for more detailed and extended recordings. The 33⅓ RPM speed also contributed to increased playing time. The standard LP record had a diameter of 12 inches, and its microgroove design allowed for up to 22 minutes of music per side.
Acceptance and Adoption: The LP format quickly gained acceptance in the music industry due to its technical advantages. Musicians, particularly classical artists and jazz performers, embraced the longer playing times, enabling them to release complete works or extended performances on a single disc.
Competing Formats: While the LP format was successful, it faced competition from other formats such as the 45 RPM single introduced by RCA Victor. The 45 RPM record was smaller and designed for shorter recordings, often single tracks or popular songs. Over time, the LP format became more associated with albums and complete musical works.
Industry Standardization: The success of the LP format led to its widespread adoption as the industry standard for long-playing records. By the mid-1950s, most record labels had transitioned from 78 RPM to the LP format.
Impact on the Music Industry: The introduction of the 33⅓ RPM LP record had a profound impact on the music industry. It changed the way artists conceived and produced albums, allowing for more creative freedom and the exploration of conceptual and thematic ideas in musical releases.
The LP record became the dominant format for recorded music for several decades until the advent of digital formats like CDs in the 1980s. Despite changes in technology, the LP format has experienced a resurgence in popularity among audiophiles and collectors in recent years.